#### GATE Syllabus for Computer Science & Engineering / Information Technology (CSE / IT)

#### ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS

**Discrete Mathematics***: *Propositional and first order logic. Sets, relations, functions, partial orders and lattices. Groups. Graphs: connectivity, matching, coloring. Combinatorics: counting, recurrence relations, generating functions.

**Probability***: *Random variables. Uniform, normal, exponential, poisson and binomial distributions. Mean, median, mode and standard deviation. Conditional probability and Bayes theorem.

**Linear Algebra***: *Matrices, determinants, system of linear equations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, LU decomposition.

**Calculus***: *Limits, continuity and differentiability. Maxima and minima. Mean value theorem. Integration.

#### COMPUTER SCIENCE AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

**Digital Logic: **Boolean algebra. Combinational and sequential circuits. Minimization. Number representations and computer arithmetic (fixed and floating point).

**Computer Organization and Architecture: **Machine instructions and addressing modes. ALU, data‐path and control unit. Instruction pipelining. Memory hierarchy: cache, main memory and secondary storage; I/O interface (interrupt and DMA mode).

**Programming and Data Structures: **Programming in C. Recursion. Arrays, stacks, queues, linked lists, trees, binary search trees, binary heaps, graphs.

**Algorithms: **Searching, sorting, hashing. Asymptotic worst case time and space complexity. Algorithm design techniques: greedy, dynamic programming and divide‐and‐conquer. Graph search, minimum spanning trees, shortest paths.

**Theory of Computation: **Regular expressions and finite automata. Context-free grammars and push-down
automata. Regular and contex-free languages, pumping lemma. Turing machines and undecidability.

**Compiler Design: **Lexical analysis, parsing, syntax-directed translation. Runtime environments. Intermediate
code generation.

**Operating System: **Processes, threads, inter‐process communication, concurrency and synchronization. Deadlock. CPU scheduling. Memory management and virtual memory. File systems.

**Databases: **ER‐model. Relational model: relational algebra, tuple calculus, SQL. Integrity constraints, normal forms. File organization, indexing (e.g., B and B+ trees). Transactions and concurrency control.

**Computer Networks: **Concept of layering. LAN technologies (Ethernet). Flow and error control techniques, switching. IPv4/IPv6, routers and routing algorithms (distance vector, link state). TCP/UDP and sockets, congestion control. Application layer protocols (DNS, SMTP, POP, FTP, HTTP). Basics of Wi-Fi. Network security: authentication, basics of public key and private key cryptography, digital signatures and certificates, firewalls.